The study focuses on the policymaking process in the higher education sector in Tunisia and critically assesses it through a case study of the important reforms in the first decade of the twenty-first century. It included the move to a new certification structure, adapted from the Bologna European model of higher education accompanied by a parallel quality assurance reform with the creation of a competent body. The study is organized into three parts: the first briefly describes the modern higher education system in Tunisia, the policies pursued in this field, and the major reforms that the country has experienced since independence. The second deals with the challenges of forming higher education policies, reforms, and quality assurance systems in Tunisia. The third presents the research methodology and the main results. The conclusion discusses the weaknesses, causes and potential impacts of the policy process.